Rice Bhattacharjee

Meenakshi Bhattacharjee

Faculty Fellow - Biosciences Department

Executive Director - Center for Applied Algal Research

Contact Information



137E Anderson Biological Lab

Educational History

Ph.D.;M.Sc.(Gold Medallist) (from Banaras Hindu University, a top-ranked university in India)

Professional History

Barkatullah University

- Lecturer 1989-1997

- Reader 1997-2005

- Professor 2005-2014

Research Areas

Algal Biotechnology/ Cyanobacteria./Algae, Biofertlizers, Biofuel, Biomass cultivation, Bioremediation, Extremophiles.

Research Interests

I have been engaged in Algal/Environmental Biotechnology studies and its applications for the last 29 years and have obtained fascinating results that form the cutting edge of research internationally. Significant research contributions range from the use of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as biofertilizers, pioneering studies on the development of novel manure using the environmentally hazardous waste, flyash and their effect on different crops, molecular studies on effects of UV-B radiation on rice field cyanobacteria and possible long term ecological effects. Other areas studied are deciphering specific cyanobacteria in controlling water pollution, and their use as indicator species in water quality assessment, cyanobacteria from lake waters as a green manure of cultivation of food crops, characterizing thermo- tolerant enzymes from thermophilic cyanobacteria ,heavy metal toxicities in the environment and the possible in situ amelioration by naturally occurring cyanobacteria and added phosphate fertilizers in rice fields, bioremediation of oil spills with cyanobacteria. The use of cyanobacterial extracts known to contain growth hormones and fine chemicals supplemented in the tissue culture medium as a new protocol for micropropagation of endangered medicinal plants has also found to be very successful and studied in detail ob many crops.

I have also conducted research on Astrobiology and studied endolithic cyanobacteria from the dry deserts of the Antarctic. These cyanobacteria that exist on the borderline of the limits of life are thought to be also present on Mars or originated from there and so this study is very valuable to understand the intricacies of microbial life in outer space. Phosphatase and nitrogenase activity in these in these naturally immobilized cyanobacteria were first report of the kind. Comparative studies on hot desert endolithic cyanobacteria of the same species showed entirely different results going out to prove that the unique features of cold temperature tolerance and lowlight effects were exclusive features of the Antarctic. Noteworthy contribution relate to the study of these extremophillic cyanobacteria from hot and cold deserts in detailing the biochemical mechanism of action and enzymology of alkaline phosphatase and nitrogenase activities in P & N dynamics of these borderline organisms and niches These organisms can be used in biosensors to detect very low levels of phosphate and nitrogen in ecosystems where no other means of detection are possible.

I also worked on the phylogenetic linkages of extremophiles from the Yellow Stone National Park USA. Results have shown unique results because no reports of any one organism having two extreme characters have been previously documented. Phyllogenetic search with BLAST analysis revealed the closest relatives of this extreme thermo-halophile to be cyanobacterial isolated from 2 fresh water and 3 endolithic ecosystems with 100 % identity, which is again very interesting for the molecular basis of evolutionary biology and the search for novel traits that can be exploited biotechnologically. Preliminary studies on quorum-sensing to investigate nitrogen status of modern biofilms/mats and the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) as anti calcifying agent and the molecular mechanism for regulation of cyanobacterial gene expression in such cases was also undertaken.

Documenting the algal flora of Houston and isolation of specific strains of algae, production of biofuels from algae grown on wastewater, bioremediation of frac return fluid with specific algae to make it reusable, identification of potent algal strains for commercial exploitation as feed, food, fine chemical, dyes, medicines and bioertilizer are my current research interests.

Experience Abroad

DAAD Fellow, In Friedrich Alexander Univarsitat, Erlangen, Germany with Prof. Donat P. Hader.

Honorary Visiting Commonwealth Fellow, in Durham University, UK, with Prof, Brian A. Whitton and British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge University with Late Prof. David Wynn William.

Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, Overseas Associate in the University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA with Prof. R.W. Castenholz.

Visiting Academic Melbourne University , Australia, Singapore University, Singapore, and University of Florence, Italy.

Memberships of Professional and Scientific Bodies:

Fellow /Life member/member of a number of professional and scientific bodies, of National and International repute.Exemplum Gratia: Life member of the National Academy of Sciences; Life member of the Indian Science Congress; Fellow of the Academy of Environmental Biology; Fellow of the National Environmental Science Academy; Fellow of the International Consortium of Contemporary Biologists, Member of the American Society of Plant Biology; Life Member of the International Society of Applied Biology; Life member J.K. Foundation India; Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Member of the Organization for Women in Science in the Developing World, Third World Academy of Science-Italy; Member of the National Institute of Ecology; Member of the Association of Microbiologists of India; Member of Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society; Life Member and Vice President of the Society for the promotion of Plant Science Research; Fellow of Horticultural Society of India; Life Member Indian Botanical Society,Member National Algae Association USA.

Awards and Distinctions:

Recipient of many awards, honors, gold medals, throughout the career from reputed professional bodies and scientific agencies of National and International repute. Exemplum Gratia: BHU Gold Medal for standing First in the M.Sc. examination of BHU; M.P. Young Scientist Award, DAAD Fellowship to Germany; JEB Young Scientist Awardof the Academy of Environmental Biology;Staff Academic Commonwealth Fellowship in Biotechnology as Honorary Visiting Fellow to UK; Scientist of the Year, National Environmental Science Academy;University Grants Commission Career Award, UNESCO recognized Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose National Award; Distinguished Scientist of the Year Award of the National Environmental Science Academy; Albert Schweitzer International Gold Medal for Science - the International Albert Schweitzer Foundation, (UK); DBT Overseas Associateship to USA; Senior Scientist Awardin the field of Environmental Biotechnology; Devaki Dutta Medal of the Academy of Environmental Biology; International Plant Scientist Award from the Horticultural Society of India, Ojaswini Award, a National Award given to Women who have made a mark in life and for their outstanding contributions. Recently in 2013 received the Dr K.N. Katju National Award for Life Sciences given by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of M.P. for outstanding contributions in Algal Biotechnology/Environmental Biotechnology.

Graduate Student Supervision

Ph.D. Degrees awarded under my supervision: 22; M.Phil. Degrees awarded under my supervision: 36 (one-year research degree between MS and Ph.D.); M.S. Degrees awarded under my supervision: over 300.


Prof. Meenakshi Banerjee (married name – Bhattacharjee)

Meenakshi Banerjee and Evan Siemann 2015. Low algal diversity systems are a promising method for biodiesel production in waste water fed open reactors. Algae. 30(1):67-79.

Maya Khuswaha and Meenakshi Banerjee 2015. A novel method of seed germination and growth odf three staple crop plants: Effect of low temperature and cyanobacterial culture additions. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization.6(1):26-32.

Meenakshi Bhattacharjee 2014. Algal Astaxanthin-A potent Molecule for good health. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization.5(4):21-28.

Meenakshi Bhattacharjee 2014.Algal Biofuel Scenarios: present and future. J.Appl.Biosci. 40(2):71-80.

Kushwaha Maya and Banerjee Meenakshi 2013. Antimicrobial activity of hydromethanolic extract of Cassia fistula seeds. Int.J. of Biol.and Pharm.Res.(IJBPR).4(11):756-761.

Suvarna and Meenakshi Banerjee 2012. Growth promoting effect of Aulosira fertillisima on Stevia rebaudiana- As medicinal plant of importance. Indian J of Botanical Research 6(2):175-181.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Brian A Whitton and Burkhard Büdel, 2012. Phosphatase activity of endolithic communities of hot semiarid lands and deserts.

Shraddha Pachori and Meenakshi Banerjee 2011. Growth performance of Withania somnifera in pot culture using Scytonema. Biospectra (In Press).

Vidhi Verma and Meenakshi Banerjee 2011. Leptolyngbya ,the thermophillic cyanobacterium. Awaiting Publication

Debkumari Sharma and Meenakshi Banerjee 2011. Regulation of nitrogenase activity in Chroococcidiopsis cultures from Antarctic: Role of immobilization and anaerobic conditions. (In press)

Debkumari Sharma and Meenakshi Banerjee 2011. Comparative studies on nitrogen assimilating enzymes in Chroococcidiopsis isolated from hot and cold deserts. In Press.

 Meenakshi Banerjee , Alka Dubey, Vidhi Verma, Shivani Gole Yadav and Rachana Chouhan 2010. Effect of Microcystis aeruginosa from lakes of Bhopal as Bio-fertilizer on Andrographis paniculata. J. Appl. Biosci., 36(1):163-165.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Shivani Gole 2010. Amelioration of lead toxicity by cyanobacteria Scytonema and Hapalosiphon. International J. Plant Sciences. 5(1):140-143.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Priyanka Modi 2010. Micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri using cyanobacterial liquid medium. Plant tissue Culture and Biotechnology 20(2): 225-231 .

Priyanka Sarkar and Meenakshi Banerjee 2010. Effect of cyanobacterial filtrate (Aulosira fertilissima) and synthetic growth regulators on invitro regeneration of Stevia rebaudina bertoni. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology. In Press.

Meenakshi Banerjee,Shailendra Uikey, Priyanka Sarkar, Priyanka Modi 2010.Effecient regeneration and multiplication of Gymnema sylvestre: an efficient medicinal plant. Ind.J.Bot.Res.6(1&2):155-164.

Rachana Chouhan and Meenakshi Banerjee 2010. Comparative study on two cyanobacteria Hapalosiphon sp. and Gloeocapsa sp. in amelioration of selenium toxicity. J. Appl. Biosci. 36(2):137-140.

 Priyanka Modi and Meenakshi Banerjee 2009. Bramhi regeneration by tissue culture.-A new cost effective simplified protocol. J.Pl.Sci.Res. 25(2):123-129.

 Meenakshi Banerjee and Shivani Gole 2009. Cyanobacterial mitigation and lead toxicity. J.Pl.Sci.Res.25 (2)209-213.

 Meenakshi Banerjee and Sarika Srivastava 2009. “Algal filterate”- A low cost substitute to synthetic growth regulators for direct organogenasis of embryo culture in Jatropha curcus (Ratanjyot) Acta Phygiologia Plantarum 31(6):1205-1212.

Priyanka Sarkar and Meenakshi Banerjee 2009. Improved protocol for in vitro regeneration of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni-a medicinal plant. J.Pl.Sci.Res. 25 (2): 8-16.

Priyanka Sarkar and Meenakshi Banerjee 2009. Multiple shoots regeneration and tissue culture studies on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. J. Appl. Biosci. 35(1):28-33.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Craig Everwood and Richard W. Castenholz –2009. Characterization of a novel clade of thermo-hallophillic clade of cyanobacteria from saline thermal springs and endolithic habitats by molecular techniques. Extremophiles, 13:707-716.

Priyanka Modi and Meenakshi Banerjee 2009.Effect of the growth regulator and additives (AdSo4, Zeatin and Coconut water) on micropropagation of Rauvolfia serpentina L Benth. J. Appl. Biosci. 35 (1):34-36.

Meenakshi Banerjee , Shilendra Kumar Uikey, Priyanka Sarkar and Priyanka Modi 2009. Role of cyanobacterial extracts for rapid invitro propagation of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Biospectra 1: 36-43.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Priyanka Modi 2009. A noval protocol for micropropagation of Rauvolfia serpentina: In low concentrations of growth regulators with sucrose and phenolic acid. International J. of Plant Sciences. 5(1):93-97.

 Meenakshi Banerjee and Priyanka Sarkar 2009. Effect of growth hormones on in vitro somatic embryogenesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. International J. Plant Sciences. 3(1):284-289.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Vidhi Verma 2009.Study of nitrate reductase and phosphatase activity in Mastigocladus. Asain J. of Biosciences. 2(2):51-62.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Sarika Srivastava 2008 An improved protocol for in vitro multiplication of Bacopa monnieri (L). World J. Microbiology and Biotechnology, Springer 24: 1355-1359

Meenakshi Banerjee and Vidhi Verma 2008 Extremophilic cyanobacteria and their novel biotechnological applications. J. Applied Bioscience.34 (2) 7-14.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Vidhi Verma 2008 Nanotechnology and Medicine. Indian Biotech Journal 1 (2): 5-9.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Priyanka Sarkar 2008 Stevia the zero calorie sweetener and its biotechnological importance. Indian Biotech Journal 1 (2):12-15.

Vidhi Verma, Shivani Gole and Meenakshi Banerjee 2008 Comparative studies of the enzymes of the nitrogen assimilatory pathway of two cyanobacteria from two different and dominant ecological niches. Biospectra. 3(1): 111-116

Meenakshi Banerjee (2008) Arsenic: A threatening environmental issue and role of cyanobacteria in toxicity mitigation. J. of Ecophysiology and Occupational health. 8: 153-159.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Shivani Gole 2008. Cyanobacteria and Nickel. J. Applied Bioscience. 34 (2):129-138.

Vidhi Verma and Meenakshi Banerjee 2008. Thermophillic Cyanobacteria-The wonder organisms. Advances in biological science. APH Publication House, N. Delhi pp:251-267.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2008 Biofilms and their Biotechnological importance. The recent advances in Biotechnology. M.D. Publishers N. Delhi 135-148.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Sarika Srivastava 2008. Invitro clonal propagation of Physic nut (Jatropha curcus) : Influence of additives. International J. Integrative Biology .3(1):73-79

Meenakshi Banerjee and Priyanka Sarkar 2008. Invitro callusing in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni using cyanobacterial media – a novel approach to tissue culture. IJIB 3(3): 163-168.

Meenakshi Banerjee , Rachana Chouhan, Vidhi Verma and Shivani Gole 2008. Bioremediation of selenium by cyanobacterium Hapalosiphon sp. Biospectra, 3 (2):305-310.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Shivani Gole 2008. “Nickel toxicity in cyanobacteria and its amelioration”. Nickel in relation to plants. Ed. B. Ali, S. Hayat and A. Ahmad. Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Chap 8:173-186.

 Meenakshi Banerjeeand Vidhi Verma. (2008). Nitrogen fixation in endolithic cyanobacterial communities of the Mc Murdo Dry Valley Antarctica. Science Asia, 35 (3): 35-38.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2007. Comparative studies on phosphatase activity of 4 rice field cyanobacterial strains and their biotechnological implications. Nova Hedwigia .85 (3-4) 407-416.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Jhuma Chatterjee and Jyoti John- 2007. Role of Cyanobacterial Phosphatase enzymes in the environment. In: Proc. Natl. Acad. Science 77(B) 111: 244-252.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2007. Bioremediation of oils: Role of Cyanobacteria. In Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae. Narosa Publication House New Delhi. - 211-243.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Sarika Srivastava and Mahesh Mankar 2006. A novel method of cultivation of medicinal plants by algalization with cyanobacteria. J. Applied Bioscience. 32(1): 95-100.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Sarika Srivastava 2006. In vitro regeneration of Jatropha curcus (Ratanjyot): Prospects of biofuel production and medicine. Indian J. Bot. Res. Vol 2 (2):195-200.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Jhuma Chatterjee 2006.Effect of environmental factors on phosphatase activity of heterocystous cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 3:56-63.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Vidhi Verma 2006.Nitrogen assimilation studies of four cyanobacteria from different ecological niches. Indian J. Bot. Res. Vol 2 (2):157-162.

 Meenakshi Banerjee 2006. Spirulina-the wonder spiral.In Biotechnological Applications of Cyanobacteria. (Ed) K. Singh, Academic World. 221-231.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2006. Biohydrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria and green algae: Strategies for production of an alternate clean fuel for the future. In: Biotechnology and Biology of Plants. (Ed) P.C. Trivedi, Pointer Publishers 248-267.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2005. Biotechnological Applications of cyanobacteria in development of clean technologies for environmental management. In: Biotechnology in Environmental

Management Eds T. Chakrabarti, T.K. Ghosh, G. Tripathi, APH Publishing House, New Delhi 2: 389-406.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Debkumari Sharma 2005.Comparative studies on growth and phosphatase activity of endolithic cyanobacterial isolate Chroococcidiopsis from hot and cold deserts. J. Microbiology and Biotechnology. 15 (1): 125-130

Meenakshi Banerjee, Debkumari Sharma, Shanoo Mishra, Jyoti John, Jhuma Chatterjee and Sheena Abraham 2005. Regulating effect of light and oxygen on nitrogen fixation by Cycas. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 11(1): 93-97.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Sunita Srivastava 2005. Sensitivity of cyanobacterium Mastigocladus to petrol and its role in bioremediation. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control 20 (2):87-91.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Deepa Singh Khushwaha 2005. In situ studies on algae from Shahpura Lake: Nitrate metabolism and its contribution to nitrogen economy. Ecology Environment and Conservation. 11 (3-4): 37-40.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Jyoti John 2005.Phosphatase activity of non-hair forming cyanobacterium Rivularia and its role in phosphorus dynamics in deep water rice fields. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 3 (1): 55-60.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Debkumari Sharma 2005. Mars Terraformation: Role of Antarctic cyanobacterial cryptoendoliths. Science Letters, 28 (5&6): 135-140.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Jhumur Banik and Swasati Bhattacharya, 2004. Effect of As toxicity on the rice field cyanobacterium Calothrix. Ecol. Environ. & Conservation. 10 (3): 229-233

Meenakshi Banerjee and Debkumari Sharma 2004. Regulation of phosphatase activity of Chroococcidiopsis isolates from two diverse habitats: Effect of light, pH and temperature. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 2(1): 71-82.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Shanoo Mishra and Jhuma Chatterjee 2004. Scavenging of Ni and Cr toxicity in Aulosira fertilissima by immobilization: Effect on nitrogen assimilating enzymes. Electronic J. of Biotechnology, 7(2): 302-309.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Debkumari Sharma 2004.Astrobiology- A new emerging field of Biological Science. Current Science. 87(10):1341-1344.

Meenakshi Banerjee 2003. Biotechnological implications of phosphatase activity by two non hair-forming strains of Calothrix on P dynamics of rice fields. J. Ecophysiol. & Occup. Health. 3, 117-126

Meenakshi Banerjee and Jyoti John 2003. Comparative studies on phosphatase activity of cyanobacteria in rice fields: Significance and effect of environmental factors. Bull. of Environ. Sci. Vol 1, 37-40.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Brian Whitton and DD Wynn- Williams, 2002. Surface phosphomonoesterase activity of a natural immobilized system: Chroococcidiopsis in an Antarctic desert rock. J. Applied Phycology. 12: 549-552.

M Banerjee, Brian Whitton and DD Wynn-Williams, 2002a. Phosphatase activities of endolithic communities in rocks of the Antarctic Dry Valley. Microbial Ecology. 39: 80-91.

M Banerjee, S Bhattacharya and J Banik, 2002. Physiological characterization of Mastigocladus isolated from hot springs and its utility. Chem. Environ. Res. 10 (1&2) 83-88.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Jhumur Banik and Swasati Bhattacharya, 2002. Ameliorating effect of pH on growth and nitrogenase activity induced by As toxicity in the rice field cyanobacterium Calothrix. J. Nat. Con. 14 (1):1-5.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Shanoo Mishra, 2002. Mitigating effect of immobilization on Aulosira fertilissima subjected to nickel and chromium stress. Bull.Bio.Sci. Vol (1) 43-46.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Jhumur Banik and Swasati Bhattacharya 2002. Influence of different physiological parameters on the nitrogen fixation of Mastigocladus. J. Nat. Con 14 (2) 8-12.

Jhumur Banik and Meenakshi Banerjee 2002. Possible Strategies of management of As Toxicity in rice fields by cyanobacteria. World Environment p 89-95.

Meenakshi Banerjee1999.Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture. In Algal Biotechnology (Ed) P.C. Trivedi, Pointer Publishers, pp 310-320.

Meenakshi Banerjee, RP Sinha and Donat P. Hader 1998. Biochemical and spectroscopic changes in phycobiliproteins of Aulosira fertilissima by UV radiation. Acta Protozoologica. 37:145-148.

Meenakshi Banerjee, Tessy Thomas & Sheena K. John 1998. Use of environmentally harzadous flyash in combination with cyanobacteria as a green manure for cultivation of Brassica juncea. Ecol. Environ. & Conservation.5 (2):107-110.

M Banerjee, A Sharma and T Thomas, 1997. Potential use of lake cyanobacterial biomass as fertilizer for cultivation of food crops. World J. Microbiology and Biotechnology. 13 (5): 595-596.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Sheena K. John, 1997. Physiological characterization of two isolated endosymbionts from Azolla and Cycas. Chem. Environ. Research. 4. (3&4): 305-309.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Malika Deb, 1997.Artificial sea water as a growth medium for Spirulina and the regulatory role of NO 3 and HCO 3. Ecol. Environ. & Conservation .3 (3-4):193-195.

Tessy Thomas and Meenakshi Banerjee, 1997. Effect of flyash amendment and algalization on growth and yield of Brassica campestris. J. Environ. Biology. 6(1): 18-21.

Meenakshi Banerjee , AK Anand and Sheena K. John 1997. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibitors on heterocyst differentiation and ammonia production in Aulosira fertilissima. J.Environ. Biology. 6 (1) :13-17.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Donat P. Hader, 1996. Effect of UV radiation on the rice field cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 36 (3) : 281-291.

Meenakshi Banerjee, 1996. Use of cyanobacterial biomass for cultivation of rice. Leaf Protein Research p 105-112.

Meenakshi Banerjee, 1995. Potential use of Aulosira fertilissima as a biofertilizer of promise. J. Environ. Biology. 6 (1) 22-25.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Malika Deb, 1995. Potential of flyash Spirulina combination as a slow release fertilizer for rice fields. Cientifica 24 (1): 55-62.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Amita Sharma, 1994. Potential significance of utilizing algal biomass from lakes as green manure for cultivation of Triticum vulgare. Cientifica. 22 (2) :195-203.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Amita Sharma, 1994. Mitigating effect of algal filtrate on Pb toxicity in Anabaena flos aquae. Poll.Res. 13 (1): 59-62.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Malika Deb, 1993. Flyash induced stimulation in growth and protein content of Spirulina platensis. Chem. Environ. Res. 2 (1&2): 151-154.

Meenakshi Banerjee and Amita Sharma, 1993. Wall algal flora from Bhopal University area. Bio Journal. 192: 133-136.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1992. Diurnal nitrogen fixation by Aulosira fertilissima. Use of short term in situ assays. Naturalia 17 : 51-58

Banerjee M, 1992. Flyash utilization for biofertilizer production. Chem. Environ Res.1 (2) 89-91.

Banerjee M and A Sharma 1991. Phytoplankton dynamics in a lake of Bhopal. Bio Journal. 3(1): 19-25.

Banerjee M 1991. Blue green algal ecology of paddy fields. Bionature 11(1):45-49.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1990.Pyruvate stimulated nitrogenase activity in the rice field cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 20:203-210.

Banerjee M, R Rao, A Kumar, LC Rai and HD Kumar 1990. Significance of pigment ratio and nitrogen assimilating enzymes in the taxonomic analysis of cyanobacteria. Phytochem. and Bot. Classification 39-46.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1989. Factors regulating nitrogenase activity and hydrogen evolution in Azolla Anabaena symbiosis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 14 (12): 71-879.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1988.Effect of carbon sources on growth and nitrogen fixation of Aulosira fertilissima Ghosh. Biochem Physiol. Pfanzen 183:51-58.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1988. Effect of algalization on growth of rice variety Jaya. J. Int. Soc. Green Veg Res. 2: 109-115.

Banerjee M and HD Kumar, 1987. Effect of light quality anaerobiosis and glucose on nitrogen fixation by the rice field cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima, ghosh. Microbiologia Hungarica 34(1):57-63.

Rao R, M Banerjee, A Kumar and HD Kumar, 1987. Hydrogen supported nitrogenase activity in two cyanobacteria. Current Microbiology 16: 5-78.